"All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for their protection, security, and benefit, and they have the right to alter or reform it when the public good may require"-California Constitution, Article II Section 1.


When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments and political bonds long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience has shown, that mankind is more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the political forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government and such political bonds, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of California and her people; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government and such political bonds. The history of the present and past administrations of the Federal Government, the said, an agent of the fifty republics of the United States, is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations of the constitutional compact between the people California and the federal agent of these United States. Therefore as, as the following injustices show, the federal agent has not and will not honor the constitutional obligations of the compact between California and itself. Therefore, having a direct object for the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over California and her people.

We, the people, of California submit to the world the following injustices, amongst others, committed by the federal agent of these United States:

For the usurpation of it's constitutional restrictions against abridging the people's rights of speech, the press, and the free exercise of religion.

For violating the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, businesses and committing unreasonable searches and seizures.

For erecting a multitude of new bureaucracies and sending swarms of their agents to harass our people and to tax our people out of their substance.

For abolishing our most valuable laws by unconstitutional edicts by the federal judiciary.

For the federal legislature's usurping of power from our own legislature by issuing unconstitutional edicts to legislate for our suppose benefit.

For issuing unconstitutional executive orders, further usurping our legislature and the will of the people, by the federal executive branch.

For conscripting California citizens to fight in undeclared,foreign wars and for not providing a truthful accounting of why some of our citizens did not return to our shores.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A government and agent whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our American brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by the federal agent to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and commerce. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, in Peace Friends but not countrymen.

We, therefore, the people of California, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do solemnly publish and declare that the California Republic, by necessity, is a free, sovereign, and independent nation; that the California Republic has resumed our position among the nations of the world. Henceforth, that all political connections between the California Republic and the federal agent and of these United States, is totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent State, we have the full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence.


The FTB's website creation and upkeep is being donated by the "Webmaster." All graphics and sound files are from public domain sources or used by permission. Contact the"Webmaster" if any of the said is not, so that it can be removed. All other materials and text are copyrighted (c) 1997, 1998 by FTB Org. Last revision April 27, 1998.